The lemon (Citrus) is a small evergreen tree native to Asia. The tree’s ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, though the pulp and rind (zest) are also used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, which gives lemons a sour taste. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade.
The ‘Bonnie Brae’ is oblong, smooth, thin-skinned, and seedless; mostly grown in San Diego County.
The bush lemon tree, a naturalized lemon, grows wild in subtropical Australia. It is very hardy, and has a thick skin with a true lemon flavor; the zest is good for cooking. It grows to about 4 m in sunny locations.
The ‘Eureka’ grows year-round and abundantly. This is the common supermarket lemon, also known as ‘Four Seasons’ (Quatre Saisons) because of its ability to produce fruit and flowers together throughout the year. This variety is also available as a plant to domestic customers.
The ‘Femminello St. Teresa’, or ‘Sorrento’] is native to Italy. This fruit’s zest is high in lemon oils. It is the variety traditionally used in the making of limoncello.
The ‘Jhambiri’ (C. jhambiri), also known as rough lemon and bush lemon, has a rough skin, lemon-yellow exterior, and very sour pulp. It is widely used as a rootstock in South Asia.
The ‘Lisbon’ is a good-quality bitter lemon with high juice and acid levels; the fruits of Lisbon are very similar to Eureka. The vigorous and productive trees are very thorny, particularly when young.
The ‘Meyer’ is a cross between a lemon and possibly an orange or a mandarin, and was named after Frank N. Meyer, who first discovered it in 1908. Thin-skinned and slightly less acidic than the Lisbon and Eureka lemons, Meyer lemons require more care when shipping and are not widely grown on a commercial basis. Meyer lemons have a much thinner rind, and often mature to a yellow-orange color. They are slightly more frost-tolerant than other lemons.
The ‘Ponderosa’ is more cold-sensitive than true lemons; the fruit are thick-skinned and very large. It is likely a citron-lemon hybrid.
The ‘Variegated Pink’ is a varietal of the ‘Eureka’ or ‘Lisbon’ cultivars with variegated patterns in the foliage and the rinds of immature green fruit. Upon maturing to yellow, the variegated pattern recedes in the fruit rind. The flesh and juice are pink or pinkish-orange instead of yellow.
The ‘Verna’ is a Spanish variety of unknown origin.
The ‘Yen Ben’ is an Australasian cultivar.